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1900 - 1945

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ERA 9 - Time of crisis and world wars


This era is about the first half of the 20th century and runs from 1900 to 1945. No less than two world wars and a worldwide economic crisis leave their mark on this period of history.


In 1914 a great war broke out between the European powers. A war in which also the colonies and other independent states (such as the United States) became involved. This led to the First World War (1914-1918).


During the interwar period (the period between the world wars), the 1920s were a period of economic prosperity (the ‘roaring twenties’) in the United States and parts of Europe. Which was followed by a period of global economic crisis from 1929. A crisis that caused impoverishment and unemployment. These developments in the 1920s and 1930s led to the rise of fascist movements in Italy and Germany.


In 1939 all of this leads to a new devastating war, which quickly developed into the Second World War (1939-1945). A war in which minorities are discriminated and purged. Gypsies, homosexuals, disabled people, intellectuals and in particular the Jews. It’s also war with new weapons of mass destruction. The civilian population is mainly the victim of this. Two atomic bombs are used by the United States to finally end the war in 1945​.

Characteristic aspects:

37. The role of modern propaganda and communication to organize the mass.


38. The application of totalitarian ideologies of communism and fascism / national socialism.


39. The crisis of world capitalism.


40. Conducting two world wars.

41. Racism and discrimination led to genocide, especially against the Jews.

42. The German occupation of The Netherlands.

43. Devastation on an unprecedented scale due to weapons of mass destruction and the involvement of the civilian population in warfare.

44. Resistance against Western European imperialism.

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