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1000 - 1500

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ERA 4 - Time of cities and states


The Middle Ages span from 500 until 1500. It's some sort of intermediate period between the ancient time and the early modern time that starts from 1500.

This era is about the High Middle Ages (1000-1350) and the Late Middle Ages (1350-1500). 

During this time, trade and cities (with its bourgeoisie and city rights) are emerging in Western Europe. Kings (and princes) centralize their power (in some sort of capitals) and states like France and England arise. 

Characteristic aspects:

13. The rise of trade and craft that laid the foundation for the revival of the agrarian-urban society.


14. The rise of the bourgeoisie and the increasing independence of cities (through city rights).


15. The discussion in the Christian church whether  the secular or clergy power should have the primacy.


16. The outward expansion of Christianity, throughout crusades.

17. The beginning of state formation and centralization.

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